Eczema: Causes and Treatments (2023)

Eczema, also known as dermatitis, is a condition that typically results in patches of dry, itchy skin. It’s not contagious and often varies from person to person, affecting around one in five children and one in 10 adults in the UK. People of all ages can develop eczema and it is typically considered a long-term condition, but there are ways you can manage its symptoms.

Here, we’ll explain the different symptoms often associated with eczema, its causes, and how you can care for your skin to help minimise your symptoms.

(Video) Eczema - Causes, Symptoms, Treatment and More

In this article:

  • What is eczema?
  • The causes and symptoms of eczema
  • How to treat eczema
  • Eczema skin care tips
  • FAQs

What is eczema?

Eczema is a topical skin condition often resulting in dry, red, and itchy skin. There are multiple types of eczema, and each one can affect different people at different times, with varying levels of severity.

Some of the different types of eczema

  • Atopic eczema(atopic dermatitis) – the most common form of eczema. It occurs mostly in children and typically develops before their first birthday. It can also affect adults and is considered a long-term condition, which can flare up later in life. Atopic eczema tends to run in families, so if your parents suffer from flare-ups, the chances are you will too.
  • Discoid eczema – a chronic skin condition that causes itchiness, redness, swelling, and cracking in circular or oval patches. It’s most common in older men (aged between 50 and 70) and younger women (in their teens to 20s). People who have discoid eczema often also suffer from atopic eczema.
  • Varicose eczema – a long-term condition also known by other names, including venous, gravitational, or stasis eczema. It shares its name with the condition varicose veins, which it commonly develops alongside, particularly in older women. In fact, this type of eczema affects as many as 70% of people over 70. People with a history of obesity or deep vein thrombosis are also more likely to develop varicose eczema.
  • Dyshidrotic eczema – also known as pompholyx, dyshidrotic eczema is usually a long-term condition that appears as small itchy blisters on the palms of the hands or soles of the feet. The symptoms typically come and go over a two-to-three-week period.

The causes and symptoms of eczema

There’s no single cause of eczema. Instead, most people find there are multiple causes of eczema that lead to flare-ups. However, there are certain things that are more likely to trigger specific types of eczema.

Atopic eczema (atopic dermatitis)

People with atopic eczema often have very dry skin that is unable to retain much moisture. When it dries out, skin is typically more sensitive to triggers such as certain materials, hormonal changes, allergens, and irritants like soaps or detergents. This can then make your skin itchy or sore.

Other common triggers include:

  • Food allergies
  • Dry or dusty air
  • Stress
  • Extremely hot or cold weather
  • Sweat.

It’s thought that genetics may play a part in causing atopic eczema, as it tends to run in families. Children who have one or more parents with atopic eczema, or have siblings with the condition, are more likely to develop it themselves. It isn’t infectious, so you won’t develop the condition simply from being in close contact with someone who has it.

People with active atopic eczema develop patches of itchy, dry, cracked, and sore skin, which are typically on the hands, insides of the elbows, and back of the knees. These patches may look bright red on lighter skin or dark brown or purple on darker skin shades. While these may be more severe during flare-ups, those with atopic eczema will usually have times when their symptoms are less noticeable.

(Video) What is Eczema? Causes, Signs and Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment.

Discoid eczema

Like atopic eczema, discoid eczema is caused by extremely dry skin that is prone to react to irritants, such as soaps. However, unlike atopic eczema, it isn’t known to run in families.

Discoid eczema flare-ups have also been linked to some medicines, including:

  • Interferon and ribavirin – when used in combination to treat hepatitis C.
  • Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) blockers – common arthritis treatments.
  • Statins (cholesterol-lowering medicine) – known to cause dry skin and rashes.

Other triggers for discoid eczema include:

  • Dry, cold environments.
  • Minor skin injuries, such as insect stings or bites or burns.

When it first develops, discoid eczema often appears as a group of small spots or bumps on the skin. Over time, these join to form larger patches of pink or red swollen and itchy skin. On darker skin, these patches can look dark brown and typically appear paler than the surrounding skin.

Varicose eczema

This is usually caused by increased pressure in the leg veins, which can cause fluid to leak into the surrounding tissue. The dry and flaky skin that comes with all types of eczema may, in this case, be the result of an immune response to the fluid leaking into tissues in that area of the body.

Some people seem to develop varicose eczema with no apparent cause, but there are certain things that can increase your risk of developing the condition. These include:

  • Gender – women are more likely to develop the condition than men.
  • Obesity – being overweight can increase the pressure on your lower legs, which is a major cause of varicose veins and, subsequently, varicose eczema.
  • Pregnancy – the added weight of pregnancy can also increase the pressure on the veins in your lower legs.
  • Lack of movement – being stationary for long periods of time can reduce circulation in your legs.
  • History of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) – blood clots caused by DVT can damage the veins in your lower legs.
  • Age – older people may have more difficulty with mobility, which can impact their circulation.

Varicose eczema has the typical symptoms of atopic eczema, such as patches of dry, flaking, and itchy skin, but can also cause discoloration of the legs, tender and tight skin, and pain. Some people also experience swelling in their lower legs, especially after standing for long periods.

(Video) Eczema Exposed: 8 Types You Need to Know

Dyshidrotic eczema

The exact cause of dyshidrotic eczema is unclear. However, it’s common in people who regularly have wet hands (such as hairdressers). It has also been linked to:

  • Heat
  • Sweat
  • Stress
  • Sensitivity to certain metals
  • Strong chemicals in detergents and soaps.

Dyshidrotic eczema is common in people who have atopic eczema, with around 50% of sufferers of dyshidrotic eczema experiencing both conditions simultaneously. The condition can also develop alongside fungal infections, so it’s a good idea to check for any signs of infection before beginning treatment.

The earliest sign of this type of eczema is a burning or prickly sensation, which is shortly followed by the appearance of itchy blisters on the hands or feet. Symptoms typically come and go over a two-to-three-week period.

How to treat eczema

While there’s no cure for eczema, there are ways you can manage and reduce your symptoms to make it easier to continue with your everyday tasks.

Avoiding triggers

If your eczema is caused by an irritant, such as the chemicals in soaps, detergents, bubble baths, and shower gels, avoiding those triggers can help reduce the risk of flare ups. Even if your current soaps or toiletries aren’t obviously the cause of your eczema, you might benefit from switching to a fragrance-free, and more moisturising emollient-based soap.

Don’t scratch

The itching sensation caused by eczema can be hard to resist, but you should try to avoid scratching as much as possible. This could end up damaging the skin further, making the condition worse and increasing your risk of infection and scarring.

If you need to soothe the itching, try gently rubbing the patch of skin instead of scratching. Keeping your nails short and your skin covered as much as possible can also help to limit any damage caused by accidental scratching.

(Video) How To Treat Eczema (Dermatologist Explains)

Emollients or topical corticosteroids

The main treatment for eczema is regular use of emollients (moisturisers) to help prevent or alleviate skin dryness. During a flare-up, topical corticosteroids can also be applied directly to the affected skin to reduce swelling and redness.

When using topical corticosteroids for your eczema, you should:

  1. Apply your chosen emollient to the affected patch of skin. Don’t rub it too roughly as this could cause further irritation.
  2. Allow 30 minutes for the emollient to soak into your skin.
  3. Apply corticosteroid cream to the same patch of skin as recommended by the packaging or by your doctor.
  4. Continue this process until 48 hours after your eczema flare up has calmed down.


If you’re experiencing severe itching as a result of eczema on your hands, face, or other areas of your body, you may benefit from using antihistamines. If the itching is affecting your sleep, a sedating antihistamine that causes drowsiness may be useful.

Medicated bandages

Your GP may recommend using medicated bandages, clothing, or wet wraps to wear over the patches of skin affected by eczema. These are usually used alongside some form of topical cream, like emollients or corticosteroids, to help soothe the itching and inflammation. By covering the skin, the bandages help to prevent scratching, giving your skin time to heal. They also prevent the skin from drying out by keeping it moisturised.

Corticosteroid tablets

If your symptoms are severe, your GP may prescribe corticosteroid tablets. However, these are generally avoided as a form of chronic eczema treatment, as they carry potentially harmful side effects.

Eczema skin care tips

Caring for your skin is a great way to soothe and manage your eczema symptoms. The key is often to keep the skin’s moisture intact with emollients. This helps to protect the outermost layer of skin (called the stratum corneum), or skin barrier.

Eczema can damage this barrier, making the skin unable to retain water, which makes it dry and sensitive. This contributes to chronic dry, itchy skin, which can cause eczema to flare-up or get worse.

(Video) 10 tips to HEAL YOUR ECZEMA| Dr Dray

Here are some of our top tips for how to stop itching and improve your skin care for eczema:

  • Get the right moisturiser – choose an emollient or moisturiser that’s perfume- and additive-free as they’re typically gentler on your dry and sensitive skin.
  • Lock in moisture – to retain moisture, and ease symptoms of dryness and itching, try to apply an emollient every day, even when symptoms aren’t presenting.
  • Use plenty – the current recommendation is that an adult should use at least 500g of emollient every week, while children should use 250g. Don’t worry, as you cannot use too much.
  • Smooth, don’t rub – do not rub products in. Instead, gently smooth them onto your skin in the same direction your hair grows.
  • Be gentle – gently pat your skin dry after washing and apply the emollient while the skin is still damp. This helps retain moisture.
  • Use the correct utensils – avoid putting your hands into pots of emollient cream. Instead, use a utensil to take out the right amount and replace the lid of the tub after use. Alternatively, use a pump dispenser.
  • Care for your skin every day – you should care for your skin even if you don’t have an active flare-up. Products like AVEENO® Dermexa Daily Emollient Cream can help care for your skin on a daily basis, without the need for a complicated skin care routine.


What is the main cause of eczema? ›

Eczema is associated with the development of food and environmental allergies, and it develops due to a defective skin barrier. Eczema is often inherited, and infants with parents who have allergies or asthma are at highest risk for development.

What foods trigger eczema flare ups? ›

Certain foods, including nuts, milk, and wheat, can trigger the release of inflammation-causing T cells and immunoglobulin-E. Other foods that commonly cause eczema flare ups include eggs, dairy, soy, citrus, tomatoes, gluten, and even some spices such as cloves, cinnamon, and vanilla.

What causes eczema to go away? ›

There's no known cure for eczema, and the rashes won't simply go away if left untreated. For most people, eczema is a chronic condition that requires careful avoidance of triggers to help prevent flare-ups. Age is also thought to play a role: About 60 percent of people who have eczema developing it as infants.

How do you get rid of eczema easily? ›

Apply an over-the-counter steroid cream (hydrocortisone) along with anti-itching lotion (menthol/camphor, such as calamine). The cream must be applied as often as possible, without skipping days, until the rash is gone. Take diphenhydramine in pill form for the itching.

What deficiency causes eczema? ›

Not getting enough vitamin A may be to blame for the development of eczema and other skin problems ( 4 ). Eczema is a condition that causes dry, itchy and inflamed skin. Several clinical studies have shown alitretinoin, a prescription medication with vitamin A activity, to be effective in treating eczema ( 3 , 5, 6 ).

What can be mistaken for eczema? ›

There are other skin conditions that can resemble eczema or psoriasis, including ringworm, athlete's foot, scabies, herpes and contact dermatitis. Unlike psoriasis and eczema, some of these conditions are highly contagious.

What are 7 common foods that make eczema worse? ›

Foods that commonly trigger an eczema reaction include:
  • Wheat and gluten.
  • Citrus fruits.
  • Soy.
  • Grapes.
  • Broccoli.
  • Eggs.
  • Dairy, including yogurt, cow's milk, cheese, and butter.
  • Tomatoes.
Oct 17, 2018

Does caffeine aggravate eczema? ›

People may believe that coffee worsens symptoms, but there is little evidence that drinking coffee will worsen eczema symptoms.

What vitamins are good for eczema? ›

Vitamin B12 cream: 1 study found it helped reduce eczema in adults. Vitamin D: Possibly helpful during the winter. Vitamin E: Mild positive effect.

Does Benadryl help eczema? ›

Doctors do not generally recommend Benadryl for treating eczema in adults or children. Although this medication does help treat itching and rashes resulting from hives, it does not have the same benefits for relieving eczema-related itching.

Is eczema a fungal infection? ›

Fungal infections and eczema are skin conditions that can appear very similar with signs and symptoms like dry, itchy, inflamed skin. However, they are two separate conditions with different causes and treatments.

What is the fastest natural cure for eczema? ›

Natural remedies for eczema
  1. Colloidal oatmeal. Colloidal oatmeal is found in a variety of bath soaks and body lotions. ...
  2. Bleach bath. It sounds strange, but adding bleach to your bath might be helpful. ...
  3. Apple cider vinegar. ...
  4. Coconut oil. ...
  5. Petroleum jelly. ...
  6. Cool compress. ...
  7. Embrace distraction. ...
  8. Skip the suds.
Nov 2, 2021

How I naturally cured my eczema? ›

12 Natural Remedies to Reduce Eczema Symptoms
  1. Oatmeal.
  2. Evening primrose oil.
  3. Coconut oil.
  4. Sunflower oil.
  5. Witch hazel.
  6. Calendula cream.
  7. Acupuncture.
  8. Manuka honey.

Should you cover eczema or let it breathe? ›

Wet wrapping to treat moderate to severe eczema is generally well tolerated. However, there are a few potential risks and side effects to consider. Covering the skin increases the potency of topical treatments, which may make them more effective.

Is vaseline good for eczema? ›

The good news is that the National Eczema Association has affirmed that Vaseline® Jelly Original is suitable for eczema sufferers and people with sensitive skin conditions. You can use petroleum jelly on eczema-prone areas, to help combat the dry skin symptoms.

Is eczema caused by poor gut health? ›

Recent studies have drawn a link between eczema and the health of the skin microbiome. However, there's also evidence that gut health is a major factor in the cause and treatment of eczema. Research has shown that gut health is closely associated with the appearance of eczema in childhood.

What are the main foods to avoid with eczema? ›

Foods to Avoid for Eczema:

Added artificial sugars, trans-fats, processed meat, red meat, refined carbs, and dairy all cause inflammation in the body. Foods containing nickel. Nickel is an ingredient known to encourage symptoms of dyshidrotic eczema.

Is eczema a form of autoimmune disease? ›

Even though eczema and autoimmune diseases share commonalities, based on current medical knowledge and definitions, eczema is technically not autoimmune.

Is eczema a fungus or bacteria? ›

Causes. A variety of viruses, bacteria, and fungi can cause infected eczema. The following are some of the more common microbes responsible for causing infected eczema: Staphylococcus aureus (staph infection)

Can eczema be a symptom of something else? ›

While the exact cause of eczema is unknown, researchers do know that people develop eczema because of an interaction between genes and environmental triggers. Many people with eczema often report comorbid symptoms of hay fever, allergic asthma and food allergies.

What do eczema spots look like? ›

On lighter skin these patches will be pink or red. On darker skin these patches can be a dark brown or they can be paler than the skin around them. Initially, these patches are often swollen, blistered (covered with small fluid-filled pockets) and ooze fluid. They also tend to be very itchy, particularly at night.

How do I know if it's eczema or psoriasis? ›

Subtle Differences in Itchiness

Millstein says, "Psoriasis tends to cause milder itching and, in some less common types of psoriasis, a terrible burn. Eczema, on the other hand, can lead to very intense itching. When it starts to become severe, some people scratch their skin so hard that it bleeds."

What are the top foods to eliminate for eczema? ›

Not everyone will have issues with the foods listed below, but common food allergies associated with eczema include:
  • cow's milk.
  • peanuts.
  • eggs.
  • soy products.
  • wheat.
  • tree nuts.
  • fish.
  • shellfish.

Do bananas help eczema? ›

Potassium-High Foods

Food items such as bananas, avocados and sweet potatoes are rich in potassium, which is another inflammation-fighting component that can help reduce the symptoms of eczema.

How do I calm my immune system from eczema? ›

Here's five common ways to improve your symptoms of eczema.
  1. Eliminate allergens. Over 80 percent of eczema sufferers have higher than normal antibodies in their system. ...
  2. Take probiotics for healthy digestion. ...
  3. Follow an anti-inflammatory diet. ...
  4. Swap skin care products for manuka honey. ...
  5. Balance your vitamin intake.
Feb 18, 2016

What drinks make eczema worse? ›

For some people, a glass of wine, a beer, or a cocktail can lead to an eczema flare. There currently isn't much research to explain why alcohol can bring on redness or discoloration and itching, but that doesn't make the symptoms any less real for people who have them.

Can anxiety cause eczema? ›

Anxiety and depression can be common triggers in some individuals that can cause eczema to flare up, which then creates further stress, leading to more eczema exacerbations.

Does vitamin D stop eczema? ›

In a small study (11 participants) of children ages 2–13 with eczema, 80% of those taking 1,000 IU of vitamin per day for one month showed improvement in their symptoms. In another study with 30 participants, all of those taking 1,600 IU of vitamin D daily showed significant improvement in their eczema.

Does vitamin D reduce eczema? ›

Several studies on adults found that taking vitamin D for 2 months lessened the severity of eczema. Combining vitamin D with other skin-supportive nutrients like vitamin E or taking it along with eczema medications could lead to even better results, especially for severe symptoms.

Should I take vitamin D for eczema? ›

A 2018 systematic review of 21 publications found that lower vitamin D levels were associated with eczema severity, and supplementation improved symptoms in 67% of people. An older review in 2016 suggests that vitamin D supplements lessen the severity of eczema and are a safe and tolerable therapy.

Does Neosporin help eczema? ›

This medication is used to treat a variety of skin conditions (such as insect bites, poison oak/ivy, eczema, dermatitis, allergies, rash, itching of the outer female genitals, anal itching).

Can I use hydrocortisone cream for eczema? ›

Hydrocortisone skin treatments can be used to treat swelling, itching and irritation. They can help with the symptoms of: eczema.

Is aquaphor good for eczema? ›

How it works for eczema. A 2022 study found that Aquaphor was an effective adjuvant treatment to topical steroids and was safe and effective for mild to moderate hand eczema. Aquaphor is also free of preservatives, dyes, and fragrances, common contact allergens that may worsen eczema.

Is eczema a staph infection? ›

The skin of people with eczema (atopic dermatitis) often contains high numbers of a type of bacteria called Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), which can cause skin infections. Eczema treatments intended to reduce S. aureus on the skin include antibiotics, treatments put on the skin, and antibacterial soaps/baths.

What bacteria causes eczema? ›

The skin is the most important protection we have against infection as it provides a barrier that prevents the billions of bacteria found on our skin from entering the body. Staphylococcus aureus (Staph. aureus) is the bacterium that is most commonly responsible for secondary infection of eczema.

How do I know if my eczema is bacterial? ›

Signs of a bacterial infection can include: fluid oozing from the skin. a yellow crust on the skin surface. small yellowish-white spots appearing in the eczema.

Does apple cider vinegar get rid of eczema? ›

Apple cider vinegar may reduce eczema symptoms by restoring the skin's acidity levels. Some people report that adding the vinegar to baths helps reduce dryness. However, it can also cause burns and irritation and may not be suitable for all types of eczema.

What diet cures eczema permanently? ›

Anti-inflammatory diet for eczema

Anti-inflammatory diets limit dairy, whole grains, red meat, flour and sugar, but emphasize vegetables and fish. In fact, going vegan (or keeping nearly a fully plant-based diet) is also a good route to take.

How do you stop eczema from spreading? ›

Treatments include:
  1. emollients – to use all the time.
  2. soap substitutes – to replace irritating soaps and cleaning products.
  3. topical corticosteroids – for flare-ups.
  4. antibiotics – for infected eczema.
  5. antihistamines – for severe itching.

Is there a pill I can take for eczema? ›

CIBINQO is a prescription medicine to treat adults and children 12 years of age and older with moderate-to-severe eczema (atopic dermatitis) that did not respond to other treatment and is not well controlled with prescription medicines, including biologics, or when they cannot be tolerated.

How long does it take for eczema to clear up? ›

With proper treatment, flare-ups may last one to three weeks, notes Harvard Health Publishing. Chronic eczema such as atopic dermatitis can go into remission with the help of a good preventative treatment plan.

What makes eczema worse? ›

Overall people said their eczema tended to be worse in winter and that heaters, which dry out the air, added to the problem. In contrast, being in the sun seemed to help. However, some people found that hot weather could make them sweat which would lead to itchiness, aggravating their eczema, and make their skin sting.

What is the 3 minute rule for eczema? ›

Apply prescription topical medication to the affected areas of skin as directed. Within three minutes, liberally apply a moisturizer all over the body. It's important to apply the moisturizer within three minutes or the skin may become even drier.

Does sunlight help eczema? ›

Our dermatologists may recommend brief periods of sunlight exposure instead of artificial phototherapy to relieve symptoms of eczema and dermatitis. This is called sun therapy or heliotherapy.

Which is better for eczema Vaseline or aquaphor? ›

What is this? However, Aquaphor may not be the best choice if you are allergic to lanolin or have sensitive skin. Meanwhile, Vaseline may be better for those with sensitive and eczema-prone skin. Since the formula is 100% pure petroleum jelly, there is less chance of irritation or allergic reactions.

Is aloe vera good for eczema? ›

Aloe vera is a natural moisturizer. Many people find that aloe vera gel can hydrate and soothe eczema-damaged skin. Individuals often turn to natural remedies, such as aloe vera gel, to soothe patches of eczema.

Is aquaphor better than Vaseline? ›

Aquaphor tends to be a better moisturizer because it contains humectant ingredients and is occlusive, while Vaseline is only occlusive. When used for wound healing after surgery, Vaseline has shown to cause less redness at the wound site than Aquaphor. If you have a lanolin allergy, opt for Vaseline over Aquaphor.

Is eczema an allergy or autoimmune disease? ›

Eczema is not an autoimmune disease, but the two conditions are closely linked. In eczema, the immune system is not attacking a specific target in the skin or the body. This is a key feature that defines an autoimmune disease. That said, there are certain parts of the immune system that may be overactive in eczema.

Can you suddenly develop eczema? ›

Eczema may improve after childhood, but it can return later on at any stage of life. Eczema can also suddenly appear for the first time in later life, for reasons that can be difficult to determine. Skin becomes drier as we get older, which can lead to roughness, scaling and itchiness.

What gets rid of eczema naturally? ›

Natural remedies for eczema
  1. Colloidal oatmeal. Colloidal oatmeal is found in a variety of bath soaks and body lotions. ...
  2. Bleach bath. It sounds strange, but adding bleach to your bath might be helpful. ...
  3. Apple cider vinegar. ...
  4. Coconut oil. ...
  5. Petroleum jelly. ...
  6. Cool compress. ...
  7. Embrace distraction. ...
  8. Skip the suds.
Nov 2, 2021

Is eczema a gut issue? ›

The specific causes of eczema are unknown, but emerging research suggests that some forms may be linked to gut health. Studies have found that people with atopic dermatitis — the most common form of eczema — may have a less diverse gut microbiome than people who don't have eczema.

Is eczema due to weak immune system? ›

Is eczema caused by a weak immune system? Eczema isn't believed to be the result of a weak immune system. But researchers don't know exactly what causes eczema, according to the National Eczema Association (NEA). Experts think genes and a variety of triggers are contributing factors.

Does hydrogen peroxide help eczema? ›

Be sure to avoid doing things that exacerbate dry skin, such as applying alcohols, hydrogen peroxide, or other harsh chemicals. While avoidance of triggers is unlikely to cure eczema, it can help minimize flare-ups.

When should I go to the doctor for eczema? ›

See a doctor if you or your child are experiencing: Discomfort and pain that keeps you from sleeping or functioning normally. Excessive eczema symptoms even after trying over-the-counter or home treatments. Worsening skin infections — especially if they include pus, red streaks, or yellow scabs.

What is eczema that never goes away? ›

Discoid eczema, also known as nummular or discoid dermatitis, is a long-term (chronic) skin condition that causes skin to become itchy, swollen and cracked in circular or oval patches. Without treatment, discoid eczema can last for weeks, months or even years.


1. Eczema - Itchy, Dry Skin and How to Get Relief
(Mayo Clinic)
(Dr Dray)
3. Eczema on the face: 11 tips from a dermatologist| Dr Dray
(Dr Dray)
4. Doctor Reacts to Severe Eczema Problems #shorts #eczema
(Doctor Youn)
(Dr Dray)
6. Treatments for atopic dermatitis
(American Academy of Dermatology)


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